Care Of Consumers With Mental Health Problems
This essay will look at the relationship between schizophrenia and bio psycho sociable issues it will also explore the idea of recovery and in addition look at a few of the approaches that are being used to promote the recovery process. The National Health Support (2005) describes schizophrenia as a mental illness with substantial brief and long term consequences for individuals, family, health insurance and clinical services and world. One in hundred people experience schizophrenia in their life span with highest incidence of the condition in late teens and early 20s. People who have schizophrenia suffer distress and permanent disability and there is a large amount of accompanied stigma and prejudice involved with the disease that may have unwanted effects on employment, relationships and life satisfaction. A person’s family is totally destroyed with schizophrenia and carers and family members also carry the responsibility of the disease and caring the person for years.
« Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder characterized by profound disruptions in thinking, affecting terminology, perception and thee impression of self. It quite often includes psychotic experiences, such as hearing voices or delusion. It can impair functioning through the loss of an acquired capability to earn a livelihood or the disruption of research » (WHO, 2009)
Schizophrenia is not caused by one single factor but a combo of different factors these elements are biological, mental and social. This is exactly what is called the bio psycho social model of schizophrenia (Santrock, 2007).
There are usually many factors behind schizophrenia one of they are genetic factors. Riley & Kendler (2006) state that 70% of men and women who develop schizophrenia have got a relative who features schizophrenia, the better the relation the more likely a person is to achieve the disease if a person has an identical twin with schizophrenia they have got a 50% potential for developing schizophrenia.
There can be a genetic component to schizophrenia which means someone could be predisposed to producing schizophrenia nonetheless it does not imply that they are pre-determined to build up the condition. Biological factors can include age or a virus and environmental elements for example life stressors can bring about an onset of schizophrenia. Stressful life events that occur range from expecting, losing employment, moving residence or losing somebody who is close however, not everyone who undergoes these stressful circumstances will be identified as having schizophrenia as some people can handle stressful conditions better than other people will.
Risk factors may be different for different individuals – while one individual may develop schizophrenia due largely to a strong family history of mental argument essay examples disease (e.g. a high degree of genetic risk), someone else with much less genetic vulnerability may also develop the disease because of a blend of pre-pregnancy factors, pregnancy factors, public and family pressure or environmental elements that they experience during synthesis essay outline their childhood, teen or early adult years. This suggests that individuals possess different levels of vulnerability to schizophrenia, which are determined by a blend of biological, cultural and/or psychological factors. It really is proposed that vulnerability to schizophrenia will lead to the development of problems only once environmental stressors are present (Riley & Kendler, 2006). If the vulnerability of an individual is sufficiently high, relatively low degrees of environmental stress might be sufficient to cause problems. If the vulnerability is much less, problems will establish only when higher levels of environmental anxiety are experienced (NHS article, on Schizophrenia 2005).
In mental health restoration has a lot of different definitions and will not always make reference to a person having entire recovery from mental health issues in the same way a person can fully get over having physical health issues. A person not merely has to recover from the distress and trauma of psychotic encounters there is also to deal with public exclusion, discrimination, stigma, loss of position in society, feelings of hopelessness, likely forced hospitalisation and the trauma of obtaining a diagnosis.
The National Institute of Mental Health and wellbeing (2009) suggests that there is no single meaning of the idea of recovery for people with mental health issues, but the easiest way to clarify the recovery unit is among hope and that it is possible for someone’s meaningful life to end up being restored, despite major mental illness. Recovery can often be referred to as an activity, outlook, perspective, and conceptual framework or guiding principle (Watkins, 2007).
The Mental Health basis (2007) state that the recovery process should provide a holistic look at of mental illness that focuses on the person as a whole and not simply their symptoms. In addition they believe recovery from serious mental illness is possible in fact it is a journey instead of a destination but it does not necessarily mean getting back to where a person was before their medical diagnosis recovery may happen in ‘fits and begins’ and, like lifestyle it has various ups and downs, demands optimism and dedication from all concerned, is very much indeed influenced by people’s goals and attitudes needing a very well organised support system this could be from family, good friends or professionals in addition, it requires mental health service providers to accept and undertake new ways of working.
Recovery highlights that while people may not have full control over their symptoms, they can have complete control over their lives. In line with the National Institute of Mental Health recovery isn’t about ‘getting rid’ of mental health problems. It is about being able to help persons beyond their challenges helping the person to be able to recognise and develop the chances that connect their abilities, interests and dreams. Mental condition and social attitudes such as stigma that nonetheless surrounds mental illness could impose restrictions on people experiencing ill health and wellbeing (Hinshaw, 2007). Restoration looks past these constraints to help people achieve their objectives.
A care pathway is an outline of anticipated good care, placed in an appropriate timeframe, to greatly help a patient with a specific condition or group of symptoms move progressively through a clinical experience to positive outcomes. The Division of Health Dual Analysis Practice Guide (2002) state that someone with dual analysis Schizophrenia and material misuse issues will have an integrated attention pathway as their care and attention can be complex as there is likely to be multi agency involvement.
The Overview of Assessments of Risk and Have to have (SARN) is an instrument designed to be utilized in mental health companies for describing services users’ needs for health care. (Self et al 2008). It offers a brief description of the necessities of people getting into Mental Health companies or presenting with a feasible need for change in a care plan. It was developed to aid in the process of establishing a classification of provider users predicated on their needs so that appropriate service responses could be developed both at the individual and assistance level. It allows pros from a range of backgrounds to summarise their assessments in a shared formatting. Thus it offers a common terminology for describing health claims and related social circumstances and boosts communication between numerous users including service users themselves (National Well being Service, 2009).
There are several tactics used to market the healing process and these can include pharmacological interventions, CBT, family therapy.
Those who have family benefit many if their own families are well informed about the illness have support and skills to cope with the ill relative.
Social skills training, vocational assistance and environmental modification support support restoration because if an individual is in charge of their finances have a job that they can head to this is likely to help with their personal development and their self esteem.
Cognitive behavior therapy can help reduce the distress and disability caused by symptoms of schizophrenia. Improve understanding and self control, reduce the risk of further relapse, improve mood and self esteem it involves consumer as an active participant in treatment. Great guidelines (2009) state that mental interventions should play a key role in the treating schizophrenia and that the very best evidence is normally for CBT and family members intervention. NICE guidelines now explicitly recommend CBT to be presented as cure option and relatives interventions should be open to families who are living with somebody with psychosis or who are in close connection with someone with psychosis.
CBT offers a collaborative approach ensures client reaches the centre of care and is an dynamic participant in decisions about treatment; this improves engagement with companies (Freeman & Felgoise, 2005).
Motivational interviewing was originally developed as cure for drugs and alcohol addiction. However, it really is now used in combination with clients with psychosis to enhance compliance with medication (Rollnick & Miller, 2002). It is also used for customers with a dual analysis of drug or liquor use and psychosis (Haddock et al, 2002). Motivational interviewing is based on the theory of stages of switch or cycle of modification (Proschaska & Diclemente, 1982).
According to Rollnick & Miller (2002) different stages of change are; In ‘pre-contemplation’ the person will not acknowledge a difficulty exists. In ‘contemplation’ the individual is ambivalent – they happen to be in two minds about what they want to do. In ‘action’ the individual is preparing and planning for change. When they are ready the decision to improve is manufactured and it turns into all consuming. In ‘maintenance’ the modification has been introduced into the person’s life. Some support may be needed through the repair stage. ‘Lapse’ is a temporary return to ‘old’ unhelpful thoughts, thoughts or behaviours. ‘Relapse’ is usually a full go back to the previous behaviour. Lapse and relapse are viewed as natural area of the Cycle of Change and don’t assume failure. It does not imply that lapse or relapse can be desirable or even always to be likely. It simply signifies that change is difficult, in fact it is unreasonable to expect one to be able to change a habit correctly without any slide ups (Rollnick & Miller, 2002). Whenever a relapse occurs, several journeys through the stages may be necessary to make lasting changes. Every time the person is encouraged to review, reflect and study from their slip ups. Rollnick and Miller (2002), declare that motivational interviewing is especially effective when consumers are sometimes in the ‘pre-contemplation’ or ‘contemplation’ stages.
Relapse prices in psychosis are really high, even if persons stay on their medication so that it is always great practice to work carefully with your client and their friends and family and list early warning signs (Witkiewitz & Marlatt, 2007). This can bring about an action plan that may be implemented to help spot signals of relapse. Once a set of early warning signs has been completed an in depth action plan can be drawn up this will most likely include, which the client and their family group should do if indicators of relapse happen to be spotted. These plans can include what services should respond to the client and families concerns and give a list of available means e.g. extra medication, phone numbers to call in crisis. Doing this can be empowering for both the client and their spouse and children it can enhance the romantic relationship between them and mental overall health services giving them extra control over their treatment and in addition permits them to feel backed in practical ways (Witkiewitz & Marlott, 2007) .
As with all therapies there’s always problems the main kinds connected with CBT and motivational interviewing happen to be initial engagement, encouraging people to talk about their symptoms and concerns, funding, time constraints and resources and ensuring that skilled mental health workers have sufficient training in undertaking these therapies.
Being diagnosed with schizophrenia shouldn’t imply that a person can’t live a complete and happy existence. With the right help and advice and continuing support from mental health services a person who suffers from schizophrenia will be able to work, build interactions and live a standard life just like anyone else. According to Mind (2009) that is due to a better knowledge of schizophrenia the introduction of more effective medicines and the increasing use of therapeutic interventions.